Thématiques principales / Main interests


1.  Comportements fins des proies / Prey fine-scale behaviors

L'objectif principal de cette thématique est d'identifier les situations dans lesquelles les comportements anti-prédation des proies entrent en conflit avec d'autres activités reliées à la fitness, et d'étudier la manière dont l'individu fait face à cette nécessité de compromis. Nous abordons ces questions principalement dans le cadre du comportement de vigilance(s) ou de sélection de l'habitat à fine échelle.
Modèles biologiques principaux: ongulés, lapins.

Our main focus is to identify situations in which prey anti-predation behaviors conflict with other fitness related activities and to investigate how individuals deal with this need of trade-off. We mainly focus on vigilance(s) behavior or fine-scale habitat selection.
Main studied models: ungulates, rabbits.

2. Allocation au sexe / Sex allocation

La théorie de l'allocation au sexe prévoit que les parents privilégient les descendants dont le sexe leur procure le meilleur retour en investissement en terme d'aptitude nette potentielle. Selon leurs caractéristiques, et celles du milieu, il est attendu que certains parents privilégient l'investissement dans les fils, d'autres dans les filles. Nous abordons cette question par l'étude du sex-ratio et de l'investissement post-natal.

Modèles biologiques principaux: oiseaux marins, ongulés.

Sex allocation theory predicts that parents should favor offspring of the sex that provides the greatest fitness return. According to their own characteristics or those of the habitat, some parents are expected to bias their investment towards sons while others should favor daughters. We mainly focus on sex ratio variation and post-natal investment patterns.

Main studied models: seabirds, ungulates.


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P. Blanchard, O. Pays and H. Fritz. 2017. Ticks or lions: trading between allogrooming and vigilance in maternal care. Animal Behaviour in press.

T. Merkling, P. Blanchard, O. Chastel, A. Vallat-Michel, S.A. Hatch, E. Danchin and F. Helfenstein. 2017. Reproductive effort and oxidative stress: effects of offspring sex and number on the physiological state of a long-lived bird. Functional Ecology in press.

P. Blanchard, C. Lauzeral, S. Chamaillé-Jammes, N. G. Yoccoz and D. Pontier. 2016. Analyzing the proximity to cover in a landscape of fear: A new approach applied to fine-scale habitat use by rabbits facing feral cat predation on Kerguelen archipelago. PeerJ 4:e1769.

T. Merkling, C. Perrot, F. Helfenstein, J.-B. Ferdy, L. Gaillard, E. Lefol, E. Voisin, S. A. Hatch, E. Danchin and P. Blanchard. 2016. Does parent-offspring conflict shape the relationship between environmental conditions and maternal effects? An experimental test. Ecology and Evolution 6:3699-3710.

F. Barnier, P. Duncan, H. Fritz, P. Blanchard, D. I. Rubenstein, O. Pays. 2016. Between-gender differences in vigilance do not necessarily lead to differences in foraging-vigilance tradeoffs. Oecologia 181:757-768.

T. Merkling, J. Welcker, A.J.M. Hewison, S.A. Hatch, A.S. Kitaysky, J. Speakman, E. Danchin, and P. Blanchard. 2015. Identifying the selection pressures underlying offspring sex-ratio adjustments: a case study in a wild seabird. Behavioral Ecology 26:916-925.

 S. Leclaire, V. Bourret, P. Blanchard, C. Defranceschi, T. Merkling, S.A. Hatch and E. Danchin. 2015. Carotenoids increase immunity and sex-specifically affect color and redox homeostasis in a monochromatic seabird. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 69:1097-1111.

N. Bonnot, H. Verheyden, P. Blanchard, J. Cote, L. Debeffe, B. Cargnelutti, F. Klein, A.J.M. Hewison and N. Morellet. 2015. Interindividual variability in habitat use: evidence for a risk management syndrome in roe deer? Behavioral Ecology 26:105-114.

S. Le Saout, J.-L. Martin, P. Blanchard, N. Cebe, A.J.M. Hewison, J.-L. Rames and S.  Chamaillé‐Jammes. 2015. Seeing a ghost? Vigilance and its drivers in a predator‐free world. Ethology 121:1-10.

S. Leclaire, W.F.D. van Dongen, S. Voccia, T. Merkling, C. Ducamp, S.A. Hatch, P. Blanchard, E. Danchin and R.H. Wagner. 2014. Preen secretions encode information on MHC similarity in a monogamous seabird. Scientific Reports 4:6920.

T. Merkling, L. Agdere, E. Albert, R. Durieux, S.A. Hatch, E. Danchin and P. Blanchard. 2014. Is natural hatching asynchrony optimal? An experimental investigation of sibling competition patterns in a facultatively siblicidal seabird. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 68:309-319.

T. Merkling, O. Chastel, P. Blanchard, C. Trouvé, S.A. Hatch and E. Danchin. 2014. Physiological and fitness correlates of experimentally altered hatching asynchrony magnitude in chicks of a wild seabird. General and Comparative Endocrinology 198:32-38.

S. Benoist, M. Garel, J.-M. Cugnasse and P. Blanchard. 2013. Human disturbances, habitat characteristics and social environment generate sex-specific responses in vigilance of Mediterranean mouflon. PLoS ONE 8:e82960.

J. Martin, B. van Moorter, E. Revilla, P. Blanchard, S. Dray, P.-Y. Quenette, D. Allainé and J. Swenson. 2013. Reciprocal modulation of internal and external factors determines individual movements. Journal of Animal Ecology 82:290-300.

S. Leclaire, P. Blanchard, J. White, S.A. Hatch and E. Danchin. 2013. Symmetry of black wingtips is related to laying success and integument coloration in black-legged kittiwakes. The Auk 130:541-547.

W.F.D. van Dongen, J. White, H.B. Brandl, Y. Moodley, T. Merkling, S. Leclaire, P. Blanchard, E. Danchin, S.A. Hatch and R. Wagner. 2013. Age-related differences in cloacal microbiota in a wild bird species. BMC Ecology 13:11.

G. Rieucau, P. Blanchard, J.G.A. Martin, F.-R. Favreau, A.W. Goldizen and O. Pays. 2012. Investigating differences in vigilance tactic use within and between the sexes in eastern grey kangaroos. PLoS ONE 7:e44801.

O. Pays, P. Blanchard, M. Valeix, S. Chamaillé-Jammes, P. Duncan, S. Périquet, M. Lombard, G. Ncube, T. Tarakini, E. Makuwe and H. Fritz. 2012. Detecting predators and locating competitors while foraging: an experimental study of a medium-sized herbivore in an African savanna.  Oecologia 169:419-430.

T. Merkling, S. Leclaire, Danchin E., Lhuillier E., R. Wagner, J. White, S. Hatch and P. Blanchard. 2012. Food availability and offspring sex in a monogamous seabird: insights from an experimental approach. Behavioral Ecology 23:751-758.

G. Bourgoin, M. Garel, P. Blanchard, D. Dubray, D. Maillard and J.-M. Gaillard. 2011. Daily responses of mouflon (Ovis gmelini musimon × Ovis sp.) activity to summer climatic conditions. Canadian Journal Zoology 89:765–773.

P. Blanchard and S. Devillard. 2010. On the evolutionary consequences of a Trivers-Willard effect in humans: Further analysis of Dr S. Kanazawa's paper on 'beautiful parents'. Journal of Theoretical Biology 264:1296-1298.

C. Bonenfant, J.-M. Gaillard, T. H. Coulson, M. Festa-Bianchet, A. Loison, M. Garel, L.E. Loe, P. Blanchard, N. Pettorelli, N. Owen-Smith, J. Du Toit and P. Duncan. 2009. Empirical evidences of density-dependence in populations of large herbivores. Advances in Ecological Research 41:313-357.

A. Jaeger, P. Blanchard, P. Richard, and Y. Cherel. 2009. Using carbon and nitrogen isotopic values of body feathers to infer inter- and intra-individual variations of seabird feeding ecology during moult. Marine Biology 156:1233-1240.

P. Blanchard, R. Sabatier and H. Fritz. 2008. Within-group spatial position and vigilance: a role also for competition? The case of impalas with a controlled food supply. Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 62:1863-1868.

P. Blanchard and H. Fritz. 2008. Seasonal variation in rumination parameters of free-ranging impalas ( Aepyceros melampus ). Wildlife Biology 14:372-378 .
P. Blanchard and H. Fritz. 2007. Induced or routine vigilance while foraging. Oikos 116:1603-1608.

P. Blanchard, N. Hanuise, S. Dano and H. Weimerskirch. 2007. Offspring sex ratio in relation to parental size and body condition in the long-lived wandering albatross (Diomedea exulans). Behavioural Ecology and Sociobiology 61:767-773.

P. Blanchard. 2005. On lactation and rumination in bighorn ewes. Journal of Zoology 265:107-112.

P. Blanchard, M. Festa-Bianchet, J.-M. Gaillard and J.T. Jorgenson. 2005. Maternal condition and offspring sex ratio in polygynous ungulates: a case study of Bighorn Sheep. Behavioral Ecology 16:274-279.

P. Blanchard, M. Festa-Bianchet, J.-M. Gaillard and J.T. Jorgenson. 2003. A test of long-term fecal nitrogen monitoring to evaluate nutritional status in bighorn sheep. Journal of Wildlife Management 67:477-484. 

M. Festa-Bianchet, P. Blanchard, J.-M. Gaillard and A.J.M. Hewison. 2002. Tooth extraction is not an acceptable technique to age live ungulates. Wildlife Society Bulletin 30:282-283.

A. J. M. Hewison, J.-M. Gaillard, P. Blanchard and M. Festa-Bianchet. 2002. Maternal age is not a predominant determinant of progeny sex ratio in ungulates. Oikos 98:334-339.

Revue sans comité de lecture

P. Blanchard. 2010. La vigilance ou les vigilances? Herbivorie Info, numéro 10.
Accès au site du Parc Naturel Régional du Massif des Bauges ainsi qu’à la revue.